Showing posts with label occult. Show all posts
Showing posts with label occult. Show all posts

Friday, September 14, 2012

[Occult] Zombie Magic



        I guess this is an article I've wanted to write
for some time. It seems to me that there is a lot of
occult misinformation being bantered about. And a lot
of people are not being very nice about it. What I
write here is from the standpoint of an insider within
the occult community. I've noticed some very questionable
practices. Unfortunately, there doesn't seem to be much
that we can do to put a stop to them.
        Some of the more vocal members of the Christian
community do speak out against the occult. Unfortunately,
those that do are speaking out against *all* the occult.
They are missing the point completely. I feel there is
absolutely nothing wrong with the occult or 'new age'
(so called) per se, but there is indeed a problem with
*some* of it. For those who use the Christian Bible
as a rationalization for their condemnation of anything
occult (or anything else which they don't understand
or don't agree with) I can only hope they will study
and think more deeply on the matter. I suggest that
even the Bible does not condemn occultism in general,
but that it is critical regarding certain *types of
practices* -- something many people have overlooked.
I guess the best way to explain what I mean is with
some examples.
     Recently, Phil Donahue ran a television program
about 'Voodoo'. It managed to insult almost everyone,
and to malign legitimate voodoo, witchcraft, magick,
and Catholocism. It also contained a great amount
of misinformation. But the primary thing about it
which I take exeption to was the idea put forth by
a guest of the program who claimed to be a 'Voodoo
priestess', when she suggested that a love spell
was good magick. Wrong. Wrong. Wrong. Wrong. Wrong.
       For the type of love spell which she
demonstrated on the program was potentially very
bad. It was designed to force a lover who had left
to return. That means it was designed to exert an
overpowering influcence on the lover's will. Now,
while I think this is possilbe. I also think that
it is a very evil thing to do. To control someone
in an occult manner like that is Black Magick.
It is also very unethical, immoral, and selfish.
In addition to everything else, if the spell
works it probably won't last, and if it doesn't
it may 'recoil' against the practicioner. Black
magick is dangerous. It has always been dangerous.
       So-called psychics advertise widely in
newspapers and magazines. Of course many (most?)
of them are simple frauds. Cheating the public
has always been a popular way to make a living.
Of course some psychics are gifted, but the ones
that are any good probably don't need to advertise
very much. What concerns me most however, are
the ads which suggest that the psychic will
cast a spell for you or against your enemies.
That part against your enemies is Black Magick
once again. And we are seeing a lot of it, all
in the name of 'New Age'. Fine new age this is,
where you can pay someone to harm your enemies...
All of it perfectly legal.
        Suppose for a moment that you utilize
an occult love spell of some sort to cause a lover
who left you to return. If it works, what do you
have? Someone whose will has been manipulated.
Since the process is against the natural order of
things, the result will wear off. Meantime, what
you have is a Zombie. You are like a pupeteer
who holds all the strings. Freedom of action has
been violated. It isn't nice, and it isn't fun.
It is instead Zombie magick.
        And so we have seen that there are certain
widespread occult practices which are very negative.
It isn't a conspiracy. And it doesn't seem to be
a network of evil groups. It is more insideous
than that, for it is in every city, maskeraiding
under the name of power-over-others. The law can't
touch it. Nobody's even trying to put a stop to it.

[Occult] Yoga For Yahoos VIII

(Part 8 of 8)

                       YOGA FOR YELLOWBELLIES.

                           FOURTH LECTURE.

     Salutation to the Sons of the Morning!

     Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the Law.

     1.  I should like to begin this evening by recapitulating very
briefly what has been said in the previous three lectures, and this
would be easier if I had not completely forgotten everything I said. 
But there is a sort of faint glimmering to the effect that the
general subject of the series was the mental exercises of the Yogi;
and the really remarkable feature was that I found it impossible to
discuss them at all thoroughly without touching upon, first of all,
ontology; secondly, ordinary science; and thirdly, the high Magick of
the true initiates of the light.
     2.  We found that both Ontology and Science, approaching the
question of reality from entirely different standpoints, and pursuing
their researches by entirely different methods, had yet arrived at an
identical 'impasse.'  And the general conclusion was that there could
be no reality in any intellectual concept of any kind, that the only
reality must lie in direct experience of such a kind that it is
beyond the scope of the critical apparatus of our minds.  It cannot
be subject to the laws of Reason; it cannot be found in the fetters
of elementary mathematics; only transfinite and irrational concep-
tions in that subject can possibly shadow forth the truth in some
such paradox as the identity of contradictories.  We found further
that those states of mind which result from the practice of Yoga are
properly called trances, because they actually transcend the
conditions of normal thought.
     3.  At this point we begin to see an almost insensible drawing
together of the path of Yoga which is straight (and in a sense arid)
with that of Magick, which may be compared with the Bacchic dance or
the orgies of Pan.  It suggests that Yoga is ultimately a sublimation
of philosophy, even as Magick is a sublimation of science.  The way
is open for a reconciliation between these lower elements of thought
by virtue of their tendency to flower into these higher states beyond
thought, in which the two have become one.  And that, of course, is
Magick; and that, of course, is Yoga.
     4.  We may now consider whether, in view of the final identifi-
cation of these two elements in their highest, there may not be
something more practical than sympathy in their lower elements -- I
mean mutual assistance.
     I am glad to think that the Path of the Wise has become much
smoother and shorter than it was when I first trod it; for this very
reason that the old antinomies of Magick and Yoga have been
completely resolved.
     You all know what Yoga is.  Yoga means union.  And you all know
how to do it by shutting off the din of the intellectual boiler
factory, and allowing the silence of starlight to reach the ear.  It
is the emancipation of the exalted from the thrall of the commonplace
expression of Nature.
     5.  Now what is Magick?  Magick is the science and art of
causing change to occur in conformity with the Will.  How do we
achieve this?  By exalting the will to the point where it is master
of circumstance.  And how do we do this?  By so ordering every
thought, word and act, in such a way that the attention is constantly
recalled to the chosen object.
     6.  Suppose I want to evoke the 'Intelligence' of Jupiter.  I
base my work upon the correspondences of Jupiter.  I base my mathema-
tics on the number 4 and its subservient numbers 16, 34, 136.  I
employ the square or rhombus.  For my sacred animal I choose the
eagle, or some other sacred to Jupiter.  For my perfume, saffron --
for my libation some preparation of opium or a generous yet sweet and
powerful wine such as port.  For my magical weapon I take the scep-
tre; in fact, I continue choosing instruments for every act in such a
way that I am constantly reminded of my will to evoke Jupiter.  I
even constrain *every* object.  I extract the Jupiterian elements
from all the complex phenomena which surround me.  If I look at my
carpet, the blues and purples are the colours which stand out as
Light against an obsolescent and indeterminate background.  And thus
I carry on my daily life, using every moment of time in constant
self-admonition to attend to Jupiter.  The mind quickly responds to
this training; it very soon automatically rejects as unreal anything
which is not Jupiter.  Everything else escapes notice.  And when the
time comes for the ceremony of invocation which I have been consis-
tently preparing with all devotion and assiduity, I am quickly
inflamed.  I am attuned to Jupiter, I am pervaded by Jupiter, I am
absorbed by Jupiter, I am caught up into the heaven of Jupiter and
wield his thunderbolts.  Hebe and Ganymedes bring me wine; the Queen
of the Gods is throned at my side, and for my playmates are the
fairest maidens of the earth.
     7.  Now what is all this but to do in a partial (and if I may
say so, romantic) way what the Yogi does in his more scientifically
complete yet more austerely difficult methods?  And here the advan-
tage of Magick is that the process of initiation is spontaneous and,
so to speak, automatic.  You may begin in the most modest way with
the evocation of some simple elemental spirit; but in the course of
the operation you are compelled, in order to attain success, to deal
with higher entities.  Your ambition grows, like every other organ-
ism, by what it feeds on.  You are very soon led to the Great Work
itself; you are led to aspire to the Knowledge and Conversation of
the Holy Guardian Angel, and this ambition in turn arouses automati-
cally further difficulties the conquest of which confers new powers. 
In the Book of the Thirty Aethyrs, commonly called 'The Vision and
the Voice', it becomes progressively difficult to penetrate each
Aethyr.  In fact, the penetration was only attained by the initia-
tions which were conferred by the Angel of each Aethyr in its turn. 
There was this further identification with Yoga practices recorded in
this book.  At times the concentration necessary to dwell in the
Aethyr became so intense that definitely Samadhic results were
obtained.  We see then that the exaltation of the mind by means of
magical practices leads (as one may say, in spite of itself) to the
same results as occur in straightforward Yoga.
     I think I ought to tell you a little more about these visions. 
The method of obtaining them was to take a large topaz beautifully
engraved with the Rose and Cross of forty-nine petals, and this topaz
was set in a wooden cross of oak painted red.  I called this the
shew-stone in memory of Dr. Dee's famous shew-stone.  I took this in
my hand and proceeded to recite in the Enochian or Angelic language
the Call of the Thirty Aethyrs, using in each case the special name
appropriate to the Aethyr.  Now all this went very well until about
the 17th, I think it was, and then the Angel, foreseeing difficulty
in the higher or remoter Aethyrs, gave me this instruction.  I was to
recite a chapter from the Q'uran:  what the Mohammedans call the
'Chapter of the Unity.'  'Qol:  Hua Allahu achad; Allahu assamad: 
lam yalid walam yulad; walam yakun lahu kufwan achad.'  I was to say
this, bowing myself to the earth after each chapter, a thousand and
one times a day, as I walked behind my camel in the Great Eastern Erg
of the Sahara.  I do not think that anyone will dispute that this was
pretty good exercise; but my point is that it was certainly very good
     From what I have said in previous lectures you will all recog-
nise that this practice fulfils all the conditions of the earlier
stages of Yoga, and it is therefore not surprising that it put my
mind in such a state that I was able to use the Call of the Thirty
Aethyrs with much greater efficacy than before.
     8.  Am I then supposed to be saying that Yoga is merely the
hand-maiden of Magick, or that Magick has no higher function than to
supplement Yoga?  By no means.  it is the co-operation of lovers;
which is here a symbol of the fact.  The practices of Yoga are almost
essential to success in Magick -- at least I may say from my own
experience that it made all the difference in the world to my magical
success, when I had been thoroughly grounded in the hard drill of
Yoga.  But -- I feel absolutely certain that I should never have
obtained success in Yoga in so short a time as I did had I not spent
the previous three years in the daily practice of magical methods.
     9.  I may go so far as to say that just before I began Yoga
seriously, I had almost invented a Yogic method of practising Magick
in the stress of circumstances.  I had been accustomed to work with
full magical apparatus in an admirably devised temple of my own.  Now
I found myself on shipboard, or in some obscure bedroom of Mexico
City, or camped beside my horse among the sugar canes in lonely
tropical valleys, or couched with my rucksack for all pillow on bare
volcanic heights.  I had to replace my magical apparatus.  I would
take the table by my bed, or stones roughly piled, for my altar.  My
candle or my Alpine Lantern was my light.  My ice-axe for the wand,
my drinking flask for the chalice, my machete for the sword, and a
chapati or a sachet of salt for the pantacle of art!  Habit soon
familiarised these rough and ready succedanea.  But I suspect that it
may have been the isolation and the physical hardship itself that
helped, that more and more my magical operation became implicit in my
own body and mind, when a few months later I found myself performing 
*in full* operations involving the Formula of the Neophyte (for which
see my treatise 'Magick') without any external apparatus at all.
     10.  A pox on all these formalistic Aryan sages!  Unless one
wants to be very pedantic, it is rather absurd to contend that this
form of ritual forced upon me, first by external and next by internal
circumstances, was anything else but a new form of Asana, Pranayama,
Mantra-Yoga, and Pratyahara in something very near perfection; and it
is therefore not surprising that the Magical exaltation resulting
from such ceremonies was in all essential respects the equivalent of
     On the other hand, the Yoga training was an admirable aid to
that final concentration of the Will which operates the magical
     11.  This then is reality:  direct experience.  How does it
differ from the commonplace every-day experience of sensory impres-
sions which are so readily shaken by the first breath of the wind of
intellectual analysis?
     Well, to answer first of all in a common-sense way, the differ-
ence is simply that the impression is deeper, is less to be shaken. 
Men of sense and education are always ready to admit that they may
have been mistaken in the quality of their observation of any pheno-
menon, and men a little more advanced are almost certain to attain to
a placid kind of speculation as to whether the objects of sense are
not mere shadows on a screen.
     I take off my glasses.  Now I cannot read my manuscript.  I had
two sets of lenses, one natural, one artificial.  If I had been
looking through a telescope of the old pattern I should have had
three sets of lenses, two artificial.  If I go and put on somebody
else's glasses I shall get another kind of blur.  As the lenses of my
eyes change in the course of my life, what my sight tells me is
different.  The point is that we are quite unable to judge what is
the truth of the vision.  Why then do I put on my glasses to read? 
Only because the particular type of illusion produced by wearing them
is one which enables me to interpret a pre-arranged system of hiero-
glyphics in a particular sense which I happen to imagine I want.  It
tells me nothing whatever about the object of my vision -- what I
call the paper and the ink.  Which is the dream?  The clear legible
type or the indecipherable blur?
     12.  But in any case any man who is sane at all does make a
distinction between the experience of daily life and the experience
of dream.  It is true that sometimes dreams are so vivid, and their
character so persistently uniform that men are actully deceived into
believing that places they have seen in dreams repeatedly are places
that they have known in a waking life.  But they are quite capable of
criticising this illusion by memory, and they admit the deception. 
Well, in the same way the phenomena of high Magick and Samadhi have
an authenticity, and confer an interior certainty, which is to the
experience of waking life as that is to a dream.
     But, apart from all this, experience is experience; and the real
guarantee that we have of the attainment of reality is its rank in
the hierarchy of the mind.
     13.  Let us ask ourselves for a moment what is the characteris-
tic of dream impressions as judged by the waking mind.  Some dreams
are so powerful tht they convince us, even when awake, of their
reality.  Why then do we criticise and dismiss them?  Because their
contents are incoherent, because the order of nature to which they
belong does not properly conform with the kind of experience which
does hang together -- after a fashion.  Why do we criticise the
reality of waking experience?  On precisely similar grounds.  Because
in certain respects it fails to conform with our deep instinctive
consciousness of the structure of the mind.  *Tendency!*  We *happen*
to be that kind of animal.
     14.  The result is that we accept waking experience for what it
is within certain limits.  At least we do so to this extent, that we
base our action upon the belief that, even if it is not philoso-
phically real, it is real enough to base a course of action upon it.
     What is the ultimate prctical test of conviction?  Just this,
that it is our standard of conduct.  I put on these glasses in order
to read.  I am quite certain that the blurred surface will become
clear when I do so.  Of course, I may be wrong.  I may have picked up
some other body's glasses by mistake.  I might go blind before I
could get them into position.  Even such confidence has limits; but
it is a real confidence, and this is the explanation of why we go
ahead with the business of life.  When we think it over, we know that
there are all sorts of snags, that it is impossible to formulate any
proposition which is philosophically unassailable, or even one which
is so from a practical standpoint.  We admit to ourselves that there
are all sorts of snags; but we take our chance of that, and go ahead
in the general principles inculcated by our experience of nature.  It
is, of course, quite easy to prove that experience is impossible.  To
begin with, our consciousness of any phenomenon is never the thing
itself, but only a hieroglyphic symbol of it.
     Our position is rather that of a man with a temperamental motor-
car; he has a vague theory that it ought to go, on general princi-
ples; but he is not quite sure how it will perform in any given
circumstances.  Now the experience of Magick and Yoga is quite above
all this.  The possibility of criticising the other types of experi-
ence is based upon the possibility of expressing our impressions in
adequate terms; and this is not at all the case with the results of
Magick and Yoga.  As we have already seen, every attempt at expres-
sion in ordinary language is futile.  Where the hero of the adventure
is tied up with a religious theory, we get the vapid and unctuous
bilgewater of people like St. John of the Cross.  All Christian
Mystics are tarred with the same brush.  Their abominable religion
compels them to every kind of sentimentality; and the theory of
original sin vitiates their whole position, because instead of the
noble and inspiring Trance of Sorrow they have nothing but the
miserable, cowardly, and selfish sense of guilt to urge them to
undertake the Work.
     15.  I think we may dismiss altogether from our minds every
claim to experience made by any Christian of whatever breed of
spiritual virus as a mere morbid reflection, the apish imitation of
the true ecstasies and trances.  All expressions of the real thing
must partake of the character of that thing, and therefore only that
language is permissible which is itself released from the canon of
ordinary speech, exactly as the trance is unfettered by the laws of
ordinary consciousness.  In other words, the only proper translation
is in poetry, art and music.
    16.  If you examine the highest poetry in the light of common
sense, you can only say that it is rubbish; and in actual fact you
cannot so examine it at all, because there is something in poetry
which is not in the words themselves, which is not in the images
suggested by the words 'O windy star blown sideways up the sky!' 
True poetry is itself a magic spell which is a key to the ineffable. 
With music this thesis is so obvious as hardly to need stating. 
Music has no expressed intellectual content whatever, and the sole
test of music is its power to exalt the soul.  It is then evident
that the composer is himself attempting to express in sensible form
some such sublimities as are attained by those who practise Magick
and Yoga as they should.
     17.  The same is true of plastic art, but evidently in much less
degree; and all those who really know and love art are well aware
that classical painting and sculpture are rarely capable of producing
these transcendent orgasms of ecstasy, as in the case of the higher
arts.  One is bound to the impressions of the eye; one is drawn back
to the contemplation of a static object.  And this fact has been so
well understood in modern times by painters that they have endea-
voured to create an art within an art; and this is the true explana-
tion of such movements as 'surrealisme.'  I want to impress upon you
that the artist is in truth a very much superior being to the Yogi or
the Magician.  He can reply as St. Paul replied to the centurion who
boasted of his Roman citizenship 'With a great sum obtained I this
freedom'; and Paul, fingering the Old School Tie, sneered:  "But I
was free born.'
     18.  It is not for us here to enquire as to how it should happen
that certain human beings possess from birth this right of intimacy
with the highest reality, but Blavatsky was of this same opinion that
the natural gift marks the acquisition of the rank in the spiritual
hierarchy to which the student of Magick and Yoga aspires.  He is, so
to speak, an artist in the making; and it is perhaps not likely that
his gifts will have become sufficiently automatic in his present
incarntion to produce the fruits of his attainment.  Yet, undoubted-
ly, there have been such cases, and that within my own experience.
     19.  I could quote you the case of a man -- a very inferior and
wishy-washy poet -- who undertook for a time very strenuously the
prescribed magical practices.  He was very fortunate, and attained
admirable results.  No sooner had he done so that his poetry itself
became flooded with supernal light and energy.  He produced master-
pieces.  And then he gave up his Magick because the task of further
progress appalled him.  The result was that his poetry fell
completely away to the standard of wet blotting paper.
     20.  Let me tell you also of one man almost illiterate, a
Lancashire man who had worked in a mill from the age of nine years. 
He had studied for years with the Toshophists with no results.  Then
he corresponded with me for some time; he had still no results.  He
came to stay with me in Sicily.  One day as we went down to bathe we
stood for a moment on the brink of the cliff which led down to the
little rocky cove with its beach of marvellous smooth sand.
     I said something quite casually -- I have never been able to
remember what it was -- nor could he ever remember -- but he suddenly
dashed down the steep little path like a mountain goat, threw off his
cloak and plunged into the sea.  When he came back, his very body had
become luminous.  I saw that he needed to be alone for a week to
complete his experience, so I fixed him up in an Alpine tent in a
quiet dell under broad-spreading trees at the edge of a stream.  From
time to time he sent me his magical record, vision after vision of
amazing depth and splendour.  I was so gratified with his attainment
that I showed these records to a distinguished literary critic who
was staying with me at the time.  A couple of hours later, when I
returned to the Abbey, he burst out upon me a flame of excitement. 
'Do you know what this is?' he cried.  I answered casually that it
was a lot of very good visions.  'Bother your visions,' he exclaimed,
'didn't you notice the style?  It's pure John Bunyan!'  It was.
     21.  But all this is neither here nor there.  There is only one
thing for anybody to do on a path, and that is to make sure of the
next step.  And the fact which we all have to comfort us is this: 
that all human beings have capacities for attainment, each according
to his or her present position.
     For instance, with regard to the power of vision on the astral
plane, I have been privileged to train many hundreds of people in the
course of my life, and only about a dozen of them were incapable of
success.  In one case this was because the man had already got beyond
all such preliminary exercise; his mind immediately took on the
formless condition which transcends all images, all thought.  Other
failures were stupid people who were incapable of making an experi-
ment of any sort.  They were a mass of intellectual pride and preju-
dice, and I sent them away with an injunction to go to Jane Austen. 
But the ordinary man and woman get on very well, and by this I do not
mean only the educated.  It is, in fact, notorious that, among many
of the primitive races of mankind, strange powers of all kinds
develop with amazing florescence.
     22.  The question for each one of us is then:  first of all, to
acertain our present positions; secondly, to determine our proper
directions; and, thirdly, to govern ourselves accordingly.
     The question for me is also to describe a method of procedure
which will be sufficiently elastic to be useful to every human being. 
I have tried to do this by combining the two paths of Magick and
Yoga.  If we perform the preliminary practices, each according to his
capacity, the result will surely be the acquisition of a certain
technique.  And this will become much easier as we advance, especial-
ly if we bear it well in mind not to attempt to discriminate between
the two methods as if they were opposing schools, but to use the one
to help out the other in an emergency.
     23.  Of course, nobody understands better than I do that,
although nobody can do your work for you, it is possible to make use
-- to a certain very limited extent -- of other people's experience,
and the Great Order which I have the honour to serve has appointed
what I think you will agree is a very satisfactory and practical
     24.  You are expected to spend three months at least on the
study of some of the classics on the subject.  The chief object of
this is not to instruct you, but to familiarise you with the ground
work, and in particular to prevent you getting the idea that there is
any right or wrong in matters of opinion.  You pass an examination
intended to make sure that your mind is well grounded in this matter,
and you become a Probationer.  Your reading will have given you some
indication as to the sort of thing you are likely to be good at, and
you select such practices as seem to you to promise well.  You go
ahead with these, and keep a careful record of what you do, and what
results occur.  After eleven months you submit a record to your
superior; it is his duty to put you right where you have gone wrong,
and particularly to encourage you where you think you have failed.
     25.  I say this because one of the most frequent troubles is
that people who are doing excellent work throw it up because they
find that Nature is not what they thought it was going to be.  But
this is the best test of the reality of any experience.  All those
which conform with your idea, which flatter you, are likely to be
illusions.  So you become a Neophyte; and attack the Task of a
     There are further grades in this system, but the general prin-
ciples are always the same -- the principles of scientific study and
     26.  We end where we began.  'The wheel has come full circle.' 
We are to use the experience of the past to determine the experience
of the future, and as that experience increases in quantity it also
improves in quality.  And the Path is sure.  And the End is sure. 
For the End is the Path.
     Love is the law, love under will.

 casually -- I have never been able to
remember what it was -- nor could he ever remember -- but he suddenly
dashed down the steep little path like a mountain goat, threw off his
cloak and plunged into the sea.  When he came back, hi

[Occult] Yoga For Yahoos VII

(Part 7 of 8)

                         YOGA FOR YELLOWBELLIES.

                             THIRD LECTURE.

Dear Children,

     Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the Law.

     1.  You will remember that last week our study of Yoga had led
us to the Fathers of the Church.  We saw that their philosophy and
science, in following an independent route, had brought us to the
famous exclamation of Tertullian:  'certum est quia ineptum!'  How
right the Church has been to deny the authority of Reason!
     2.  We are almost tempted to enquire for a moment what the
Church means by 'faith.'  St. Paul tells us that faith is 'the
substance of things hoped for; the evidence of things unseen.'  I do
not think, then, that we are to imagine this word faith to mean what
that lecherous gross-bellied boor, Martin Luther, maintained.  The
faith of which he speaks is anything but a substance, and as for
evidence, it is nothing but the power, as the schoolboy said, of
believing that which we know to be untrue.  To have any sensible
meaning at all, faith must mean experience, and that view is in exact
accord with the conclusion to which we were led in my last lecture. 
Nothing is any use to us unless it be a certainty unshakeable by
criticism of any kind, and there is only one thing in the universe
which complies with these conditions:  the direct experience of
spiritual truth.  Here, and here only, do we find a position in which
the great religious minds of all times and all climes coincide.  It
is necessarily above dogma, because dogma consists of a collection of
intellectual statements, each of which, and also its contradictory,
can easily be disputed and overthrown.
     3.  You are probably aware that in the Society of Jesus the
postulants are trained to debate on all these highly controversial
subjects.  They put up a young man to prove any startling blasphemy
that happens to occur to them.  And the more shocked the young man
is, the better the training for his mind, and the better service will
he give to the Society in the end; but only if his mind has been
completely disabused of its confidence in its own rightness, or even
in the possibility of being right.
     4.  The rationalist, in his shallow fashion, always contends
that this training is the abnegation of mental freedom.  On the
contrary, it is the only way to obtain that freedom.  In the same
Society the training in obedience is based on a similar principle. 
The priest has to do what his Superior orders him -- 'perinde ac
cadaver.'  Protestants always represent that this is the most outra-
geous and indefensible tyranny.  "The poor devil,' they say, 'is
bludgeoned into having no will of his own.'  That is pure nonsense. 
By abnegating his will through the practice of holy obedience his
will has become enormously strong, so strong that none of his natural
instincts, desires, or habits can intrude.  He has freed his will of
all these inhibitions.  He is a perfect function of the machinery of
the Order.  In the General of the Society is concentrated the power
of all those separate wills, just as in the human body every cell
should be completely devoted in its particular quality to the
concentrated will of the organism.
     5.  In other words, the Society of Jesus has created a perfect
imitation of the skeleton of the original creation, living man.  It
has complied with the divinely instituted order of things, and that
is why we see that the body, which was never numerically important,
has yet been one of the greatest influences in the development of
Europe.  It has not always worked perfectly, but that has not been
the fault of the system; and, even as it is, its record has been
extraordinary.  And one of the most remarkable things about it is
that its greatest and most important achievements have been in the
domain of science and philosophy.  It has done nothing in religion;
or, rather, where it has meddled with religion it has only done harm. 
What a mistake!  And why?  For the simple reason that it was in a
position to take no notice of religion; all these matters were
decided for it by the Pope, or by the Councils of the Church, and the
Society was therefore able to free itself from the perplexities of
religion, in exactly the same way as the novice obtains complete
freedom from his moral responsibilities by sinking his personal
phantasies in the will of the Superior.
     6.  I should like to mention here that the Spiritual Exercises
of St. Ignatius are in their essence really admirable Yoga practices. 
They have, it is true, a tinge of magical technique, and they have
been devised to serve a dogmatic end.  That was, however, necessary,
and it was good magic too, at that, because the original will of the
Founder was to produce a war engine as a counterblast to the Reforma-
tion.  He was very wise to devise a plan, irrespective of its ab-
stract merits as philosophy, which would most efficiently serve that
single purpose.  The only trouble has been that this purpose was not
sufficiently cosmic in scope to resist internal forces.  Having
attained the higher planes by practice of these exercises, they found
that the original purpose of the Society was not really adequate to
their powers; they were, so to speak, over-engined.  They stupidly
invaded the spiritual sphere of the other authorities whom they were
founded to support, and thus we see them actually quarrelling with
the Pope, while failing signally to obtain possession of the Papacy. 
Being thus thwarted in their endeavours, and confused in their
purpose, they redoubled the ardour of their exercises; and it is one
of the characteristics of all spiritual exercises, if honestly and
efficiently performed, that they constantly lead you on to higher
planes, where all dogmatic considerations, all intellectual concepts,
are invalid.  Hence, we found that it is not altogether surprising
that the General of the Order and his immediate circle have been
supposed to be atheists.  If that were true, it would only show that
they have been corrupted by their preoccupation with the practical
politics of the world, which it is impossible to conduct on any but
an atheistic basis; it is brainless hypocrisy to pretend otherwise,
and should be restricted to the exclusive use of the Foreign Office.
     It would, perhaps, be more sensible to suppose that the heads of
the Order have really attained the greatest heights of spiritual
knowledge and freedom, and it is quite possible that the best term to
describe their attitude would be either Pantheistic or Gnostic.
     7.  These considerations should be of the greatest use to us now
that we come to discuss in more detail the results of the Yoga
practices.  There is, it is true, a general similarity between the
ecstatic outbursts of the great mystics all over the world.  Compari-
sons have often been drawn by students of the subject.  I will only
detain you with one example:  'Do what thou wilt shall be the whole
of the Law.'  What is this injunction?  It is a generalisation of St.
Augustine's 'Love, and do what thou wilt.'  But in 'The Book of the
Law', lest the hearer should be deluded into a spasm of antinomi-
anism, there is a further explanation:  'Love is the law, love under
     8.  However, the point is that it is no use discussing the
results of Yoga, whether that Yoga be the type recommended by Lao-
Tze, or Patanjali, or St. Ignatius Loyola, because for our first
postulate we have:  that these subjects are incapable of discussion. 
To argue about them only causes us to fall into the pit of Because,
and there to perish with the dogs of Reason.  The only use, there-
fore, of describing our experiences is to enable students to get some
sort of idea of the sort of thing that is going to happen to them
when they attain success in the practices of Yoga.  We have David
saying in the Psalms:  'I hate thoughts, but Thy law do I love.'  We
have St. Paul saying:  'The carnal mind is enmity against God.'  One
might almost say that the essence of St. Paul's Epistles is a strug-
gle against mind:  'We war not against flesh and blood' -- you know
the rest -- I can't be bothered to quote it all -- Eph. vi. 12.
     9.  It is St. Paul, I think, who describes Satan, which is his
name for the enemy, owing to his ignorance of the history of the
world, as the Prince of the Power of the Air; that is, of the Ruach,
of the intellect; and we must never forget that what operated the
conversion of St. Paul was the Vision on the road to Damascus.  It is
particularly significant that he disappeared into the Desert of
Arabia for three years before coming forward as the Apostle to the
Gentiles.  St. Paul was a learned Rabbi; he was the favourite pupil
of the best expositor of the Hebrew Law, and in the single moment of
his Vision all his arguments were shattered at a single stroke!
     10.  We are not told that St. Paul said anything at the time,
but went quietly on his journey.  That is the great lesson:  not to
discuss the results.  Those of you who possess a copy of 'The Equinox
of the Gods' may have been very much surprised at the extraordinary
injunction in the Comment:  the prohibition of all discussion of the
Book.  I myself did not fully understand that injunction; I do so
     11.  Let us now deal with a few of the phenomena which occur
during the practices of Pratyahara.
     Very early during my retirement in Kandy, I had been trying to
concentrate by slanting my eyes towards the tip of my nose.  This, by
the way, is not a good practice; one is liable to strain the eyes. 
But what happened was that I woke up in the night; my hand touched a
nose; I immediately concluded that some one was in the room.  Not at
all; I only thought so because my nose had passed away from the
region of my observation by the practice of concentrating upon it.
     12.  The same sort of thing occurs with adequate concentration
on any object.  It is connected, curiously enough, with the phenomena
of invisibility.  When your mind has gone so deeply into itself that
it is unconscious of itself and its surroundings, one of the most
ordinary results is that the body becomes invisible to other people. 
I do not think that it would make any difference for a photograph,
though I have no evidence for saying this; but it has happened to me
on innumerable occasions.  It was an almost daily occurrence when I
was in Sicily.
     13.  A party of us used to go down to a very beautiful bay of
sand, whence jutted fantastically-shaped islets of rock; it is rimmed
by cliffs encrusted with jewels of marine life.  The way was over a
bare hillside; except for a few hundred yards of vineyard there was
no cover -- nay, not for a rabbit.  But it often happened that one of
the party would turn to speak to me, and fail to see me.  I have
often known this to happen when I was dictating; my chair was
apparently empty.
     Incidentally, this faculty, which I think is exercised, as a
rule, unconsciously, may become an actual magical power.
     14.  It happened to me on one occasion that a very large number
of excited people were looking for me with no friendly intentions;
but I had a feeling of lightness, of ghostliness, as if I were a
shadow moving soundlessly about the street; and in actual fact none
of the people who were looking for me gave the slightest indication
that they were aware of my presence.
     There is a curious parallel to this incident in one of the
Gospels where we read that 'they picked up stones to stone him, but
he, passing through the midst of them, went his way.'
     15.  There is another side to this business of Pratyahara, one
that may be described as completely contradictory against what we
have been talking about.
     If you concentrate your attention upon one portion of the body
with the idea of investigating it, that is, I suppose, allowing the
mind to move within very small limits, the whole of your conscious-
ness becomes concentrated in that small part.  I used to practise
this a good deal in my retirement by Lake Pasquaney.  I would usually
take a finger or a toe, and identify my whole consciousness with the
small movements which I allowed it to make.  It would be futile to go
into much detail about this experience.  I can only say that until
you acquire the power you have no idea of the sheer wonder and
delight of that endlessly quivering orgasm.
     16.  If I remember rightly, this practice and its result were
one of the principal factors which enabled me afterwards to attain
what is called the Trance of Wonder, which pertains to the Grade of a
Master of the Temple, and is a sort of complete understanding of the
organism of the universe, and an ecstatic adoration of its marvel.
     This Trance is very much higher than the Beatific Vision, for
always in the latter it is the heart -- the Phren -- which is in-
volved; in the former it is the Nous, the divine intelligence of man,
whereas the heart is only the centre of the intellectual and moral
     17.  But, so long as you are occupying yourself with the physi-
cal, your results will only be on that plane; and the principal
effect of these concentrations on small parts of the body is the
understanding, or rather the appreciation, of sensuous pleasure. 
This, however, is infinitely refined, exquisitely intense.  It is
often possible to acquire a technique by which the skilled artist can
produce this pleasure in another person.  Map out, say, three square
inches of skin anywhere, and it is possible by extreme gentle touches
to excite in the patient all the possible sensations of pleasure of
which that person is capable.  I know that this is a very extraordi-
nary claim, but it is a very easy one to substantiate.  The only
thing I am afraid of is that experts may be carried away by the
rewards, instead of getting the real value of the lesson, which is
that the gross pleasures of the senses are absolutely worthless.
     This practice, so far as it is useful to all, should be regarded
as the first step towards emancipation from the thrall of the bodily
desires, of the sensations self-destructive, of the thirst for
     18.  I think this is a good opportunity to make a little digres-
sion in favour of Mahasatipatthana.  This practice was recommended by
the Buddha in very special terms, and it is the only one of which he
speaks so highly.  He told his disciples that if they only stuck to
it, sooner or later they would reach full attainment.  The practice
consists of an analysis of the universe in terms of consciousness. 
You begin by taking some very simple and regular bodily exercise,
such as the movement of the body in walking, or the movements of the
lungs in breathing.  You keep on noting what happens:  'I am breath-
ing out; I am breathing in; I am holding my breath,' as the case may
be.  Quite without warning, one is appalled by the shock of the
discovery that what you have been thinking is not true.  You have no
right to say:  'I am breathing in.'  All that you really know is that
there is a breathing in.
     19.  You therefore change your note, and you say:  'There is a
breathing in; there is a breathing out,' and so on.  And very soon,
if you practise assiduously, you get another shock.  You have no
right to say that there is a breathing.  All you know is that there
is a sensation of that kind.  Again you change your conception of
your observation, and one day make the discovery that the sensation
has disappeared.  All you know is that there is perception of a
sensation of breathing in or breathing out.  Continue, and that is
once more discovered to be an illusion.  What you find is that there
is a tendency to perceive a sensation of the natural phenomena.
     20.  The former stages are easy to assimilate intellectually;
one assents to them immediately that one discovers them, but with
regard to the 'tendency,' this is not the case, at least it was not
so for my own part.  It took me a long while before I understood what
was meant by 'tendency.'  To help you to realise this I should like
to find a good illustration.  For instance, a clock does nothing at
all but offer indications of the time.  It is so constructed that
this is all we can know about it.  We can argue about whether the
time is correct, and that means nothing at all, unless, for example,
we know whether the clock is controlled electrically from an astro-
nomical station where the astronomer happens to be sane, and in what
part of the world the clock is, and so on.
     21.  I remember once when I was in Teng-Yueh, just inside the
Chinese frontier in Yunnan.  The hour of noon was always telegraphed
to the Consulate from Pekin.  This was a splendid idea, because
electricity is practically instantaneous.  The unfortunate thing was,
if it *was* unfortunate, which I doubt, that the messages had to be
relayed at a place called Yung Chang.  The operators there had the
good sense to smoke opium most of the time, so occasionally a batch
of telegrams would arrive, a dozen or so in a bunch, stating that it
was noon at Pekin on various dates!  So all the gross phenomena, all
these sensations and perceptions, are illusion.  All that one could
really say was that there was a tendency on the part of some lunatic
in Pekin to tell the people at Teng-Yueh what o'clock it was.
     22.  But even this Fourth Skandha is not final.  With practice,
it also appears as an illusion, and one remains with nothing but the
bare consciousness of the existence of such a tendency.
     I cannot tell you very much about this, because I have not
worked it out very thoroughly myself, but I very much doubt whether
'consciousness' has any meaning at all, as a translation of the word
Vinnanam.  I think that a better translation would be 'experience,'
used in the sense in which we have been using it hitherto, as the
direct reality behind and beyond all remark.
     23.  I hope you will appreciate how difficult it is to give a
reasoned description, however tentative, of these phenomena, still
less to classify them properly.  They have a curious trick of running
one into the other.  This, I believe, is one of the reasons why it
has been impossible to find any really satisfactory literature about
Yoga at all.  The more advanced one's progress, the less one knows,
and the more one understands.  The effect is simply additional
evidence of what I have been saying all this time:  that it is very
little use discussing things; what is needed is continuous devotion
to the practice.

     Love is the law, love under will.

to excite in the patient all the possible sensations of pleasure of
which that person is capable.  I know that this is a very extraordi-
nary claim, but it is a very easy one to substantiate.  The only
thing I am afraid of is that experts may be carried away by the
rewards, instead of getting the real value of the lesson, which is
that the gross pleasures of the senses are absolutely worthless.
     This pra

[Occult] Yoga For Yahoos VI

(Part 6 of 8)

                         YOGA FOR YELLOWBELLIES.

                             SECOND LECTURE.

     Mr. Chairman, Your Royal Highness, Your Grace, my lords, ladies
and gentlemen.
     Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the Law.

     In my last lecture I led you into the quag of delusion; I
smothered you in the mire of delusion; I brought you to thirst in the
desert of delusion; I left you wandering in the jungle of delusion, a
prey to all the monsters which are thoughts.  It came into my mind
that it was up to me to do something about it.
     We have constantly been discussing mysterious entities as if we
knew something about them, and this (on examination) always turned
out not to be the case.
     2.  Knowledge itself is impossible, because if we take the
simplest proposition of knowledge, S is P, we must attach some
meaning to S and P, if our statement is to be intelligible.  (I say
nothing as to whether it is true!)  And this involves definition. 
Now the original proposition of identity, A = A, tells us nothing at
all, unless the second A gives us further information about the first
A.  We shall therefore say that A is BC.  Instead of one unknown we
have two unknowns; we have to define B as DE, C as FG.  Now we have
four unknowns, and very soon we have used up the alphabet.  When we
come to define Z, we have to go back and use one of the other let-
ters, so that all our arguments are arguments in a circle.
     3.  Any statement which we make is demonstrably meaningless. 
And yet we do mean something when we say that a cat has four legs. 
And we all know what we mean when we say so.  We give our assent to,
or withhold it from, the proposition on the grounds of our experi-
ence.  But that experience is not intellectual, as above demonstra-
ted.  It is a matter of immediate intuition.  We cannot have any
warrant for that intuition, but at the same time any intellectual
argument which upsets it does not in the faintest degree shake our
     4.  The conclusion to be drawn from this is that the instrument
of mind is not intellectual, not rational.  Logic is merely destruc-
tive, a self-destructive toy.  The toy, however, is in some ways also
instructive, even though the results of its use will not bear exami-
nation.  So we make a by-law that the particular sorites which
annihilate logic are out of bounds, and we go on reasoning within
arbitrarily appointed limits.  It is subject to these conditions that
we may proceed to examine the nature of our fundamental ideas; and
this is necessary, because since we began to consider the nature of
the results of meditation, our conceptions of the backgrounds of
thought are decided in quite a different manner; not by intellectual
analysis, which, as we have seen, carries no conviction, but by
illumination, which does carry conviction.  Let us, therefore,
proceed to examine the elements of our normal thinking.
     5.  I need hardly recapitulate the mathematical theorem which
you all doubtless laid to heart when you were criticising Einstein's
theory of relatively.  I only want to recall to your minds the
simplest element of that theorem; the fact that in order to describe
anything at all, you must have four measurements.  It must be so far
east or west, so far north or south, so far up or down, from a
standard point, and it must be after or before a standard moment. 
There are three dimensions of space and one of time.
     6.  Now what do we mean by space?  Henri Poincare, one of the
greatest mathematicians of the last generation, thought that the idea
of space was invented by a lunatic, in a fantastic (and evidently
senseless and aimless) endeavour to explain to himself his experience
of his muscular movements.  Long before that, Kant had told us that
space was subjective, a necessary condition of thinking; and while
every one must agree with this, it is obvious that it does not tell
us much about it.
     7.  Now let us look into our minds and see what idea, if any, we
can form about space.  Space is evidently a continuum.  There cannot
be any difference between any parts of it because it is wholly
*where*.  It is pure background, the area of possibilities, a condi-
tion of quality and so of all consciousness.  It is therefore in
itself completely void.  Is that right, sir?
     8.  Now suppose we want to fulfil one of these possibilities. 
The simplest thing we can take is a point, and we are told that a
point has neither parts nor magnitude, but only position.  But, as
long as there is only one point, position means nothing.  No possi-
bility has yet been created of any positive statement.  We will
therefore take two points, and from these we get the idea of a line. 
Our Euclid tells us that a line has length but no breadth.  But, as
long as there are only two points, length itself means nothing; or,
at the most, it means separateness.  All we can say about two points
is that there are two of them.
     9.  Now we take a third point, and at last we come to a more
positive idea.  In the first place, we have a plane surface, though
that in itself still means nothing, in the same way as length means
nothing when there are only two points there.  But the introduction
of the third point has given a meaning to our idea of length.  We can
say that the line AB is longer than the line BC, and we can also
introduce the idea of an angle.
     10.  A fourth point, provided that it is not in the original
plane, gives us the idea of a solid body.  But, as before, it tells
us nothing about the solid body as such, because there is no other
solid body with which to compare it.  We find also that it is not
really a solid body at all as it stands, because it is merely an
instantaneous kind of illusion.  We cannot observe, or even imagine,
anything, unless we have time for the purpose.
     11.  What, then is time?  It is a phantasm, exactly as tenuous
as space, but the possibilities of differentiation between one thing
and another can only occur in one way instead of in three different
ways.  We compare two phenomena in time by the idea of sequence.
     12.  Now it will be perfectly clear to all of you that this is
all nonsense.  In order to conceive the simplest possible object, we
have to keep on inventing ideas, which even in the proud moment of
invention are seen to be unreal.  How are we to get away from the
world of phantasmagoria to the common universe of sense?  We shall
require quite a lot more acts of imagination.  We have got to endow
our mathematical conceptions with three ideas which Hindu philoso-
phers call Sat, Chit and Ananda, which are usually translated Being,
Knowledge and Bliss.  This really means:  Sat, the tendency to
conceive of an object as real; Chit, the tendency to pretend that it
is an object of knowledge; and Ananda, the tendency to imagine that
we are affected by it.
     13.  It is only after we have endowed the object with these
dozen imaginary properties, each of which, besides being a complete
illusion, is an absurd, irrational, and self-contradictory notion,
that we arrive at even the simplest object of experience.  And this
object must, of course, be constantly multiplied.  Otherwise our
experience would be confined to a single object incapable of
     14.  We have also got to attribute to ourselves a sort of divine
power over our nightmare creation, so that we can compare the differ-
ent objects of our experience in all sorts of different manners. 
Incidentally, this last operation of multiplying the objects stands
evidently invalid, because (after all) what we began with was absol-
utely Nothingness.  Out of this we have somehow managed to obtain,
not merely one, but many; but, for all that, our process has followed
the necessary operation of our intellectual machine.  Since that
machine is the only machine that we possess, our arguments must be
valid in some sense or other conformable with the nature of this
machine.  What machine?  That is a perfectly real object.  It con-
tains innumerable parts, powers and faculties.  And they are as much
a nightmare as the external universe which it has created.  Gad, sir,
Patanjali is right!
     15.  Now how do we get over this difficulty of something coming
from Nothing?  Only by enquiring what we mean by Nothing.  We shall
find that this idea is totally inconceivable to the normal mind.  For
if Nothing is to be Nothing, it must be Nothing in every possible
way.  (Of course, each of these ways is itself an imaginary some-
thing, and there are Aleph-Zero -- a transfinite number -- of them.) 
If, for example, we say that Nothing is a square triangle, we have
had to invent a square triangle in order to say it.  But take a more
homely instance.  We know what we mean by saying 'There are cats in
the room.'  We know what we mean when we say 'No cats are in the
room.'  But if we say '*No* cats are *not* in the room,' we evidently
mean that *some* cats *are* in the room.  This remark is not intended
to be a reflection upon this distinguished audience.
     16.  So then, if Nothing is to be really the absolute Nothing,
we mean that Nothing does not enter into the category of existence. 
To say that absolute Nothing exists is equivalent to saying that
everything exists which exists, and the great Hebrew sages of old
time noted this fact by giving it the title of the supreme idea of
reality (behind their tribal God, Jehovah, who, as we have previously
shown, is merely the Yoga of the 4 Elements, even at his highest, --
the Demiourgos) Eheieh-Asher-Eheieh, -- I am that I am.
     17.  If there is any sense in any of this at all, we may expect
to find an almost identical system of thought all over the world. 
There is nothing exclusively Hebrew about this theogony.  We find,
for example, in the teachings of Zoroaster and the neo-Platonists
very similar ideas.  We have a Pleroma, the void, a background of all
possibilities, and this is filled by a supreme Light-God, from whom
drive in turn the seven Archons, who correspond closely to the seven
planetary deities, Aratron, Bethor, Phaleg and the rest.  These in
their turn constitute a Demiurge in order to crate matter; and this
Demiurge is Jehovah.  Not far different are the ideas both of the
classical Greeks and the neo-Platonists.  The differences in the
terminology, when examined, appear as not much more than the differ-
ences of local convenience in thinking.  But all these go back to the
still older cosmogony of the ancient Egyptians, where we have Nuit,
Space, Hadit, the point of view; these experience congress, and so
produce Heru-Ra-Ha, who combines the ideas of Ra-Hoor-Khuit and Hoor-
paar-Kraat.  These are the same twin Vau and He' final which we know. 
Here is evidently the origin of the system of the Tree of Life.
     18.  We have arrived at this system by purely intellectual
examination, and it is open to criticism; but the point I wish to
bring to your notice tonight is that it corresponds closely to one of
the great states of mind which reflect the experience of Samadhi.
     There is a vision of peculiar character which has been of
cardinal importance in my interior life, and to which constant
reference is made in my Magical Diaries.  So far as I know, there is
no extant description of this vision anywhere, and I was surprised on
looking through my records to find that I had given no clear account
of it myself.  The reason apparently is that it is so necessary a
part of myself that I unconsciously assume it to be a matter of
common knowledge, just as one assumes that everyone knows that one
possesses a pair of lungs, and therefore abstains from mentioning the
fact directly, although perhaps alluding to the matter often enough.
     It appears very essential to describe this vision as well as
possible, considering the difficulty of langauge, and the fact that
the phenomena involved logical contradictions, the conditions of
consciousness being other than those obtaining normally.
     The vision developed gradually.  It was repeated on so many
occasions that I am unable to say at what period it may be called
complete.  The beginning, however, is clear enough in my memory.
     19.  I was on a Great Magical Retirement in a cottage overlook-
ing Lake Pasquaney in New Hampshire.  I lost consciousness of every-
thing but an universal space in which were innumerable bright points,
and I realised that this was a physical representation of the uni-
verse, in what I may call its essential structure.  I exclaimed: 
'Nothingness, with twinkles!'  I concentrated upon this vision, with
the result that the void space which had been the principal element
of it diminished in importance.  Space appeared to be ablaze, yet the
radiant points were not confused, and I thereupon completed my
sentence with the exclamation:  'But *what* Twinkles!'
     20.  The next stage of this vision led to an identification of
the blazing points with the stars of the firmament, with ideas,
souls, etc.  I perceived also that each star was connected by a ray
of light with each other star.  In the world of ideas, each thought
possessed a necessary relation with each other thought; each such
relation is of course a thought in itself; each such ray is itself a
star.  It is here that logical difficulty first presents itself.  The
seer has a direct perception of infinite series.  Logically, there-
fore, it would appear as if the entire space must be filled up with a
homogeneous blaze of light.  This is not, however, the case.  The
space is completely full, yet the monads which fill it are perfectly
distinct.  The ordinary reader might well exclaim that such state-
ments exhibit symptoms of mental confusion.  The subject demands more
than cursory examination.  I can do no more than refer the critic to
Bertrand Russell's 'Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy', where
the above position is thoroughly justified, as also certain positions
which follow.
     I want you to note in particular the astonishing final identifi-
cation of this cosmic experience with the nervous system as described
by the anatomist.
     21.  At this point we may well be led to consider once more what
we call the objective universe, and what we call our subjective
experience.  What is Nature?  Immanuel Kant, who founded an epoch-
making system of subjective idealism, is perhaps the first philoso-
pher to demonstrate clearly that space, time, causality (in short,
all conditions of existence) are really no more than conditions of
thought.  I have tried to put it more simply by defining all possible
predicates as so many dimensions.  To describe an object properly it
is not sufficient to determine its position in the space-time con-
tinuum of four dimensions, but we must enquire how it stands in all
the categories and scales, its values in all 'kinds' of possibility. 
What do we know about it in respect of its greenness, its hardness,
its mobility, and so on?  And then we find out that what we imagine
to be the description of the object is in reality nothing of the
     22.  All that we recorded is the behaviour of our instruments. 
What did our telescopes, spectroscopes, and balances tell us?  And
these again are dependent upon the behaviour of our senses; for the
reality of our instruments, of our organs of sense, is just as much
in need of description and demonstration as are the most remote
phenomena.  And we find ourselves forced to the conclusion that
anything we perceive is only perceived by us as such 'because of our
tendency so to perceive it.'  And we shall find that in the fourth
stage of the great Buddhist practice, Mahasatipatthana, we become
directly and immediately aware of this fact instead of digging it out
of the holts of these interminable sorites which badger us!  Kant
himself put it, after his fashion:  'The laws of nature are the laws
of our own minds.'  Why?  It is not the contents of the mind itself
that we can cognise, but only its structure.  But Kant has not gone
to this length.  He would have been extremely shocked if it had ever
struck him that the final term in his sorites was 'Reason itself is
the only reality.'  On further examination, even this ultimate truth
turns out to be meaningless.  It is like the well known circular
definition of an obscene book, which is:  one that arouses certain
ideas in the mind of the kind of person in whom such ideas are
excited by that kind of book.
     23.  I notice that my excellent chairman is endeavouring to
stifle a yawn and to convert it into a smile, and he will forgive me
for saying that I find the effect somewhat sinister.  But he has
every right to be supercilious about it.  These are indeed 'old, fond
paradoxes to amuse wives in ale-houses.'  Since philosophy began, it
has always been a favourite game to prove your axioms absurd.
     You will all naturally be very annoyed with me for indulging in
these fatuous pastimes, especially as I started out with a pledge
that I would deal with these subjcts from the hard-headed scientific
point of view.  Forgive me if I have toyed with these shining gos-
samers of the thought-web!  I have only been trying to break it to
you gently.  I proceed to brush away with a sweep of my lily-white
hand all this tenuous, filmy stuff, 'such stuff as dreams are made
of.'  We will get down to modern science.
     24.  For general reading there is no better introduction than
'The Bases of Modern Science', by my old and valued friend the late
J. W. N. Sullivan.  I do not want to detain you too long with quota-
tions from this admirable book.  I would much rather you got it and
read it yourself; you could hardly make better use of your time.  But
let us spend a few moments on his remarks about the question of
     Our conceptions of space as a subjective entity has been com-
pletely upset by the discovery that the equations of Newton based on
Euclidean Geometry are inadequate to explain the phenomena of gravi-
tation.  It is instinctive to us to think of a straight line; it is
somehow axiomatic.  But we learn that this does not exist in the
objective universe.  We have to use another geometry, Riemann's
Geometry, which is one of the curved geometries.  (There are, of
course, as many systems of geometry as there are absurd axioms to
build them on.  Three lines make one ellipse:  any nonsense you like: 
you can proceed to construct a geometry which is correct so long as
it is coherent.  And there is nothing right or wrong about the
result:  the only question is:  which is the most convenient system
for the purpose of describing phenomena?  We found the idea of
Gravitation awkward:  we went to Riemann.)
     This means that the phenomena are not taking place against a
background of a flat surface; the surface itself is curved.  What we
have thought of as a straight line does not exist at all.  And this
is almost impossible to conceive; at least it is quite impossible for
myself to visualise.  The nearest one gets to it is by trying to
imagine that you are a reflection on a polished door-knob.
     25.  I feel almost ashamed of the world that I have to tell you
that in the year 1900, four years before the appearance of Einstein's
world-shaking paper, I described space as 'finite yet boundless,'
which is exactly the description in general terms that he gave in
more mathematical detail.(*)  You will see at once that these three
words do describe a curved geometry; a sphere, for instance, is a
finite object, yet you can go over the surface in any direction
without ever coming to an end.
     I said above that Riemann's Geometry was not quite sufficient to
explain the phenomena of nature.  We have to postulate different
kinds of curvature in different parts of the continuum.  And even
then we are not happy!
     26.  Now for a spot of Sullivan!  'The geometry is so general
that it admits of different degrees of curvature in different parts
of space-time.  It is to this curvature that gravitational effects
are due.  The curvature of space-time is most prominent, therefore,
around large masses, for here the gravitational effects are most
marked.  If we take matter as fundamental, we may say that it is the
presence of matter that causes the curvature of space-time.  But
there is a different school of thought that regards matter as due to
the curvature of space-time.  That is, we assume as fundamental a
space-time continuum manifest to our senses as what we call matter. 
Both points of view have strong arguments to recommend them.  But,
whether or not matter may be derived from the geometrical peculiari-
ties of the space-time continuum, we may take it as an established
scientific fact that gravitation has been so derived.  This is
obviously a very great achievement, but it leaves quite untouched
another great class of phenomena, namely, electro-magnetic phenomena. 
In this space-time continuum of Einstein's the electro-magnetic
forces appear as entirely alien.  Gravitation has been absorbed, as
it were, into Riemannian geometry, and the notion of force, so far as
gravitational phenomena are concerned, has been abolished.  But the
electro-magnetic forces still flourish undisturbed.  There is no hint
that they are manifestations of the geometrical peculiarities of the
space-time continuum.  And it can be shown to be impossible to relate
them to anything in Riemann's Geometry.  Gravitation can be shown to
correspond to certain geometrical peculiarities of a Riemannian
space-time.  But the electro-magnetic forces lie completely outside
this scheme.'
     27.  Here is the great quag into which mathematical physics has
led its addicts.  Here we have two classes of phenomena, all part of
a unity of physics.  Yet the equations which describe and explain the
one class are incompatible with those of the other class!  This is
not a question of philosophy at all, but a question of fact.  It does
not do to consider that the universe is composed of particles.  Such
a hypothesis underlies one class of phenomena, but it is nonsense
when applied to the electro-magnetic equations, which insist upon our
abandoning the idea of particles for that of waves.
     Here is another Welsh rabbit for supper!
     'Einstein's finite universe is such that its radius is dependent
upon the amount of matter in it.  Were more matter to be created, the
volume of the universe would increase.  Were matter to be annihilat-
ed, the volume of space would decrease.  Without matter, space would
not exist.  Thus the mere existence of space, besides its metrical
properties, depends upon the existence of matter.  With this concep-
tion it becomes possible to regard all motion, including rotation, as
purely relative.'
     Where do we go from here, boys?
     28.  'The present tendency of physics is towards describing the
universe in terms of mathematical relations between unimaginable
     We have got a long way from Lord Kelvin's too-often and too-
unfairly quoted statement that he could not imagine anything of which
he could not construct a mechanical model.  The Victorians were
really a little inclined to echo Dr. Johnson's gross imbecile stamp
on the ground when the ideas of Bishop Berkeley penetrated to the
superficial strata of the drink-sodden grey cells of that beef-witted
     29.  Now, look you, I ask you to reflect upon the trouble we
have taken to calculate the distance of the fixed stars, and hear
Professor G. N. Lewis, who 'suggests that two atoms connected by a
light ray may be regarded as in actual physical contact.  The
*interval* between two ends of a light-ray is, on the theory of
relativity, zero, and Professor Lewis suggests that this fact should
be taken seriously.  On this theory, light is not propagated at all. 
This idea is in conformity with the principle that none but observ-
able factors should be used in constructing a scientific theory, for
we can certainly never observe the passage of light in empty space. 
We are only aware of light when it encouters matter.  Light which
never encounters matter is purely hypothetical.  If we do not make
that hypothesis, then there is no empty space.  On Professor Lewis's
theory, when we observe a distant star, our eye as truly makes
physical contact with that star as our finger makes contact with a
table when we press it.'
     30.  And did not all of you think that my arguments were argu-
ments in a circle?  I certainly hope you did, for I was at the
greatest pains to tell you so.  But it is not a question of argument
in Mr. Sullivan's book; it is a question of facts.  He was talking
about human values.  He was asking whether science could possibly be
cognizant of them.  Here he comes, the great commander!  Cheer, my
comrades, cheer!
     'But although consistent materialists were probably always rare,
the humanistically important fact remained that science did not find
it necessary to include values in its description of the universe. 
For it appeared that science, in spite of this omission, formed a
closed system.  If values form an integral part of reality, it seems
strange that science should be able to give a consistent description
of phenomena which ignores them.
     'At the present time, this difficulty is being met in two ways. 
On the one hand, it is pointed out that science remains within its
own domain by the device of cyclic definition, that is to say, the
abstractions with which it begins are all it ever talks about.  It
makes no fresh contacts with reality, and therefore never encounters
any possibly disturbing factors.  This point of view is derived from
the theory of relativity, particularly from the form of presentation
adopted by Eddington.  This theory forms a closed circle.  The
primary terms of the theory, *point-events*, *potentials*, *matter*
(etc. -- there are ten of them), lie at various points on the circum-
ference of the circle.  We may start at any point and go round the
circle, that is, from any one of these terms we can deduce the
others.  The primary entities of the theory are defined in terms of
one another.  In the course of this exercise we derive the laws of
Nature studied in physics.  At a certain point in the cahin of
deductions, at *matter*, for example, we judge that we are talking
about something which is an objective concrete embodiment of our
abstractions.  But matter, as it occurs in physics, is no more than a
particular set of abstractions, and our subsequent reasoning is
concerned only with these abstractions.  Such other characteristics
as the objective reality may possess never enter our scheme.  But the
set of abstractions called matter in relativity theory do not seem to
be adequate to the whole of our scientific knowledge of matter. 
There remain quantum phenomena.'
         'So we leave her, so we leave her,
          Far from where her swarthy kindred roam -- kindred roam
          In the Scarlet Fever, Scarlet Fever,
          Scarlet Fever Convalescent Home.'
     31.  So now, no less than that chivalrous gentleman, His Grace,
the Most Reverend the Archbishop of Canterbury, who in a recent
broadcast confounded for ever all those infidels who had presumed to
doubt the possibility of devils entering into swine, we have met the
dragon science and conquered.  We have seen that, however we attack
the problem of mind, whether from the customary spiritual standpoint,
or from the opposite corner of materialism, the result is just the
     One last quotation from Mr. Sullivan.  'The universe may ulti-
mately prove to be irrational.  The scientific adventure may have to
be given up.'
     But that is all *he* knows about science, bless his little
heart!  We do not give up.  'You lied, d'Ormea, I do not repent!' 
The results of experiment are still valid for experience, and the
fact that the universe turns out on enquiry to be unintelligible only
serves to fortify our ingrained conviction that experience itself is
     32.  We may then ask ourselves whether it is not possible to
obtain experience of a higher order, to discover and develop the
faculty of mind which can transcend analysis, stable against all
thought by virtue of its own self-evident assurance.  In the language
of the Great White Brotherhood (whom I am here to represent) you
cross the abyss.  'Leave the poor old stranded wreck' -- Ruach --
'and pull for the shore' of Neschamah.  For above the abyss, it is
said, as you will see if you study the Supplement of the fifth number
of the First Volume of 'The Equinox', an idea is only true in so far
as it contains its contradictory in itself.
     33.  It is such states of mind as this which constitute the
really important results of Samyama, and these results are not to be
destroyed by philosophical speculation, because they are not suscep-
tible of analysis, because they have no component parts, because they
exist by virtue of their very Unreason -- 'certum est quia ineptum!' 
They cannot be expressed, for they are above knowledge.  To some
extent we can convey our experience to others familiar with that
experience to a less degree by the aesthetic method.  And this
explains why all the good work on Yoga -- alchemy, magick and the
rest -- not doctrinal but symbolic -- the word of God to man, is
given in Poetry and Art.
     In my next lecture I shall endeavour to go a little deeper into
the technique of obtaining these results, and also give a more
detailed account of the sort of thing that is likely to occur in the
course of the preliminary practices.

     Love is the law, love under will.

     *TANNHAUSER, written in Mexico, O.F., August, 1900.  See also my
           BERASHITH, written in Delhi, April, 1901.

 e he comes, the great commander!  Cheer, my
comrades, cheer!
     'But although consistent materialists were probably always rare,
the humanistically important fact remained that science did not find
it necessary to include values in its description of the universe. 
For it appeared that science, in spite of this omission, formed a
closed sy

[Occult] Yoga For Yahoos V

(Part 5 of 8)

                       YOGA FOR YELLOWBELLIES.

                           FIRST LECTURE.

     Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the Law.

     let us begin this evening by going briefly over the ground
covered by my first four lectures.  I told you that Yoga meant union,
and that this union was the cause of all phenomena.  Consciousness
results from the conjunction of a mysterious stimulus with a mysteri-
ous sensorium.  The kind of Yoga which is the subject of these
remarks is merely an expansion of this, the union of self-conscious-
ness with the universe.
     We spoke of the eight limbs of Yoga, and dealt with the four
which refer to physical training and experiences.
     The remaining four deal with mental training and experiences,
and these form the subject of the ensuing remarks.
     2.  Before we deal with these in detail, I think it would be
helpful to consider the formula of Yoga from what may be called the
mathematical, or magical standpoint.  This formula has been described
in my text-book on Magick, Chapter III., the formula of Tetragramma-
ton.  This formula covers the entire universe of magical operations. 
The word usually pronounced Jehovah is called the Ineffable Name; it
is alleged that when pronounced accurately its vibrations would
destroy the universe; and this is indeed quite true, when we take the
deeper interpretation.
     Tetragrammaton is so called from the four letters in the word: 
Yod, He, Vau, and He'.  This is compared with the relations of a
family -- Yod, the Father, He, the Mother; Vau, the Son; and the
final He', the Daughter.  (In writing she is sometimes distinguished
from her mother by inserting a small point in the letter.)  This is
also a reference to the elements, fire, water, air, earth.  I may go
further, and say that all possible existing things are to be classed
as related to one or more of these elements for convenience in
certain operations.  But these four letters, though in one sense they
represent the eternal framework, are not, so to speak, original.  For
instance, when we place Tetragrammaton on the Tree of Life, the Ten
Sephiroth or numbers, we do not include the first Sephira.  Yod is
referred to the second, He to the third, Vau to the group from 4 to
9, and He' final to the tenth.  No. 1 is said to be symbolised by the
top point of the Yod.
     It is only in No. 10 that we get the manifested universe, which
is thus shown as the result of the Yoga of the other forces, the
first three letters of the name, the active elements, fire, water and
air.  (These are the three 'mother letters' in the Hebrew alphabet.) 
The last element, earth, is usually considered a sort of consolida-
tion of the three; but that is rather an unsatisfactory way of
regarding it, because if we admit the reality of the universe at all
we are in philosophical chaos.  However, this does not concern us for
the moment.
     3.  When we apply these symbols to Yoga, we find that fire
represents the Yogi, and water the object of his meditation.  ((You
can, if you like, reverse these attributions.  It makes no difference
except to the metaphysician.  And precious little to him!)
     The Yod and the He combine, the Father and Mother unite, to
produce a son, Vau.  This son is the exalted state of mind produced
by the union of the subject and the object.  This state of mind is
called Samadhi in the Hindu terminology.  It has many varieties, of
constantly increasing sublimity; but it is the generic term which
implies this union which is the subject of Yoga.  At this point we
ought to remember poor little He' final, who represents the ecstasy 
-- shall I say the orgasm? -- and the absorption thereof:  the
compensation which cancels it.  I find it excessively difficult to
express myself.  It is one of these ideas which is very deeply seated
in my mind as a result of constant meditation, and I feel that I am
being entirely feeble when I say that the best translation of the
letter He' final would be 'ecstasy rising into Silence.'  Moral: 
meditate yourselves, and work it out!  Finally, there is no other
     4.  I think it is very important, since we are studying Yoga
from a strictly scientific point of view, to emphasise the exactness
of the analogy that exists between the Yogic and the sexual process. 
If you look at the Tree of Life, you see that the Number One at the
top divides itself into Numbers Two and Three, the equal and opposite
Father and Mother, and their union results in the complexity of the
Son, the Vau Group, while the whole figure recovers its simplicity in
the single Sephira of He' final, of the Daughter.
     It is exactly the same in biology.  The spermatozoon and the
ovum are biologically the separation of an unmanifested single cell,
which is in its function simple, though it contains in itself, in a
latent form, all the possibilitiies of the original single cell. 
Their union results in the manifestatiion of these qualities in the
child.  Their potentialities are expressed and developed in terms of
time and space, while also, accompanying the act of union, is the
ecstasy which is the natural result of the consciousness of their
annihilation, the necessary condition of the production of their
     5.  It would be easy to develop this thesis by analogies drawn
from ordinary human experiences of the growth of passion, the hunger
accompanying it, the intense relief and joy afforded by satisfaction. 
I like rather to think of the fact that all true religion has been
the artistic, the dramatic, representation of the sexual process, not
merely because of the usefulness of this cult in tribal life, but as
the veil of this truer meaning which I am explaining to you tonight. 
I think that every experience in life should be regarded as a symbol
of the truer experience of the deeper life.  In the Oath of a Master
of the Temple occurs the clause:  'I will interpret every phenomenon
as a particular dealing of God with my soul.'
     It is not for us to criticise the Great Order for expressing its
idea in terms readily understandable by the ordinary intelligent
person.  We are to wave aside the metaphysical implications of the
phrase, and grasp its obvious meaning.  So every act should be an act
of Yoga.  And this leads us directly to the question which we have
postponed until now -- Concentration.
     6.  Concentration!  The sexual analogy still serves us.  Do you
remember the Abbe in Browning?  Asked to preside at the Court of
Love, he gave the prize to the woman the object of whose passion was
utterly worthless, in this admirable judgment:
         'The love which to one, and one only, has reference
          Seems terribly like what perhaps gains God's preference.'
     It is a commonplace, and in some circumstances (such as con-
stantly are found among foul-minded Anglo-Saxons) a sort of joke,
that lovers are lunatics.  Everything at their command is pressed
into the service of their passion; every kind of sacrifice, every
kind of humiliation, every kind of discomfort -- these all count for
nothing.  Every energy is strained and twisted, every energy is
directed to the single object of its end.  The pain of a momentary
separation seems intolerable; the joy of consummation impossible to
describe:  indeed, almost impossible to bear!
     7.  Now this is exactly what the Yogi has to do.  All the books
-- they disagree on every other point, but they agree on this stupid-
ity -- tell him that he has to give up this and give up that, some-
times on sensible grounds, more often on grounds of prejudice and
superstition.  In the advanced stages one has to give up the very
virtues which have brought one to that state!  Every idea, considered
as an idea, is lumber, dead weight, poison; but it is all wrong to
represent these acts as acts of sacrifice.  There is no question of
depriving oneself of anything one wants.  The process is rather that
of learning to discard what one thought one wanted in the darkness
before the dawn of the discovery of the real object of one's passion. 
Hence, note well!  concentration has reduced our moral obligations to
their simplest terms:  there is a single standard to which everything
is to be referred.  To hell with the Pope!  If Lobster Newburg upsets
your digestion -- and good digestion is necessary to your practice --
then you do not eat Lobster Newburg.  Unless this is clearly under-
stood, the Yogi will constantly be side-tracked by the sophistica-
tions of religious and moral fanatics.  To hell with the Archbishops!
     8.  You will readily appreciate that to undertake a course of
this kind requires careful planning.  You have got to map out your
life in advance for a considerable period so far as it is humanly
possible to do so.  If you have failed in this original strategical
disposition, you are simply not going to carry through the campaign. 
Unforeseen contingencies are certain to arise, and therefore one of
our precautions is to have some sort of reserve of resource to fling
against unexpected attacks.
     This is, of course, merely concentration in daily life, and it
is the habit of such concentration that prepares one for the much
severer task of the deeper concentration of the Yoga practices.  For
those who are undertaking a preliminary course there is nothing
better, while they are still living more or less ordinary lives, than
the practices recommended in 'The Equinox'.  There should be -- there
must be -- a definite routine of acts calculated to remind the
student of the Great Work.
     9.  The classic of the subject is 'Liber Astarte vel Berylli',
the Book of Devotion to a Particular Deity.  This book is admirable
beyond praise, reviewing the whole subject in every detail with
flawless brilliancy of phrase.  Its practice is enough in itself to
bring the devotee to high attainment.  This is only for the few.  But
every student should make a point of saluting the Sun (in the manner
recommended in Liber Resh) four times daily, and he shall salute the
Moon on her appearance with the Mantra Gayatri.  The best way is to
say the Mantra instantly one sees the Moon, to note whether the
attention wavers, and to repeat the Mantra until it does not waver at
     He should also practise assiduously Liber III. vel Jugorum.  The
essence of this practice is that you select a familiar thought, word
or gesture, one which automatically recurs fairly often during the
day, and every time you are betrayed into using it, cut yourself
sharply upon the wrist or forearm with a convenient instrument.
     There is also a practice which I find very useful when walking
in a christian city -- that of exorcising (with the prescribed
outward and downward sweep of the arm and the words 'Apo pantos
kakodaimonos') any person in religious garb.
     All these practices assist concentration, and also serve to keep
one on the alert.  They form an invaluable preliminary training for
the colossal Work of genuine concentration when it comes to be a
question of the fine, growing constantly finer, movements of the
     10.  We may now turn to the consideration of Yoga practices
themselves.  I assume that in the fortnight which has elapsed since
my last lecture you have all perfected yourselves in Asana and
Pranayama; that you daily balance a saucer brimming with sulphuric
acid on your heads for twelve hours without accident, that you all
jump about busily like frogs when not seriously levitated; and that
your Mantra is as regular as the beating of your heart.
     The remaining four limbs of Yoga are Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyana
and Samadhi.
     I will give you the definition of all four at a single stroke,
as each one to some extent explains the one following.  Pratyahara
may be roughly described as introspection, but it also means a
certain type of psychological experience.  For instance, you may
suddenly acquire a conviction, as did Sir Humphry Davy, that the
universe is composed exclusively of ideas; or you may have the direct
experience that you do not possess a nose, as may happen to the best
of us, if we concentrate upon the tip of it.
     11.  Dharana is meditation proper, not the kind of meditation
which consists of profound consideration of the subject with the idea
of clarifying it or gaining a more comprehensive grasp of it, but the
actual restraint of the consciousness to a single imaginery object
chosen for the purpose.
     These two limbs of Yoga are therefore in a sense the two methods
employed mentally by the Yogi.  For, long after success in Samadhi
has been attained, one has to conduct the most extensive explorations 
into the recesses of the mind.
     12.  The word Dhyana is difficult to define; it is used by many
writers in quite contrary senses.  The question is discussed at some
length in Part I. of my Book IV.  I will quote what I have written
about it in conclusion --
     'Let us try a final definition.  Dhyana resembles Samadhi in
many respects.  There is a union of the ego and the non-ego, and a
loss of the sense of time and space and causality.  Duality in any
form is abolished.  The idea of time involves that of two consecutive
things, that of space two non-coincident things, that of causality
two connected things.'
     13.  Samadhi, on the contrary, is in a way very easy to define. 
Etymology, aided by the persistence of the religious tradition, helps
us here.  "Sam is a prefix in Sanskrit which developed into the
prefix 'syn' in Greek without changing the meaning -- 'syn' in
'synopsis,' 'synthesis,' 'syndrome.'  It means 'together with.'
     'Adhi' has also come down through many centuries and many
tongues.  It is one of the oldest words in human language; it dates
from the time when each sound had a definite meaning proper to it, a
meaning suggested by the muscular movement made in producing the
sound.  Thus, the letter D originally means 'father'; so the original
father, dead and made into a 'God,' was called Ad.  This name came
down unchanged to Egypt, as you see in the Book of the Law.  The word
'Adhi' in Sanskrit was usually translated 'Lord.'  In the Syrian form
we get it duplicated Hadad.  You remember Ben Hadad, King of Syria. 
The Hebrew word for 'Lord' is Adon or Adonai.  Adonai, *my* Lord, is
constantly used in the Bible to replace the name Jehovah where that
was too sacred to be mentioned, or for other reasons improper to
write down.  Adonai has also come to mean, through the Rosicrucian
tradition, the Holy Guardian Angel, and thus the object of worship or
concentration.  It is the same thing; worship is worth-ship, means
worthiness; and anything but the chosen object is necessarily an
unworthy object.
     14.  As Dhyana also represents the condition of annihilation of
dividuality, it is a little difficult to distinguish between it and
Samadhi.  I wrote in Part I., Book IV. --
     'These Dhyanic conditions contradict those of normal thought,
but in Samadhi they are very much more marked than in Dhyana.  And
while in the latter it seems like a simple union of two things, in
the former it appears as if all things rush together and unite.  One
might say this, that in Dhyana there was still this quality latent,
that the one existing was opposed to the many non-existing; in
Samadhi the many and the one are united in a union of existence with
non-existence.  This definition is not made from reflection, but from
     15.  But that was written in 1911, and since then I have had an
immense harvest of experience.  I am inclined to say at this moment
that Dhyana stands to Samadhi rather as the jumping about like a
frog, described in a previous lecture, does to Levitation.  In other
words, Dhyana is an unbalanced or an impure approximation to Samadhi. 
Subject and object unite and disappear with ecstasy mounting to
indifference, and so forth, but there is still a presentation of some
kind in the new genus of consciousness.  In this view Dhyana would be
rather like an explosion of gunpowder carelessly mixed; most of it
goes off with a bang, but there is some debris of the original
     These discussions are not of very great importance in them-
selves, because the entire series of the three states of meditation
proper is summed up in the word Samyama; you can translate it quite
well for yourselves, since you already know that 'sam' means 'togeth-
er,' and that 'Yama' means 'control.'  It represents the merging of
minor individual acts of control into a single gesture, very much as
all the separate cells, bones, veins, arteries, nerves, muscles and
so forth, of the arm combine in unconscious unanimity to make a
single stroke.
     16.  Now the practice of Pratyahara, properly speaking, is
introspection, and the practice of Dharana, properly speaking, is the
restraint of the thought to a single imaginary object.  The former is
a movement of the mind, the latter a cessation of all movement.  And
you are not likely to get much success in Pratyahara until you have
made considerable advance in Dhyana, because by introspection we mean
the exploration of the sub-strata of the consciousness which are only
revealed when we have progressed a certain distance, and become aware
of conditions which are utterly foreign to normal intellectual
conception.  The first law of normal thought is *A is A*:  the law of
identity, it is called.  So we can divide the universe into A and
not-A; there is no third thing possible.
     Now, quite early in the meditation practices, the Yogi is likely
to get as a direct experience the consciousness that these laws are
not true in any ultimate way.  He has reached a world where intel-
lectual conceptions are no longer valid; they remain true for the
ordinary affairs of life, but the normal laws of thought are seen to
be no more than a mere mechanism.  A code of conventions.
     The students of higher mathematics and metaphysics have often a
certain glimmering of these facts.  They are compelled to use irra-
tional conceptions for greater convenience in conducting their
rational investigations.  for example, the square root of 2, or the
square root of minus 1, is not in itself capable of comprehension as
such; it pertains to an order of thinking beyond the primitive man's
invention of counting on his fingers.
     17.  It will be just as well then for the student to begin with
the practices of Dharana.  If he does so he will obtain as a by-
product some of the results of Pratyahara, and he will also acquire
considerable insight into the methods of practising Pratyahara.  It
sounds perhaps, at first, as if Pratyahara were off the main line of
attainment in Yoga.  This is not so, because it enables one to deal
with the new conditions which are established in the mind by realisa-
tion of Dhyana and Samadhi.
     I can now describe the elementary practices.
     You should begin with very short periods; it is most important
not to overstrain the apparatus which you are using; the mind must be
trained very slowly.  In my early days I was often satisfied with a
minute or two at a time; three or four such periods twice or three
times a day.  In the earliest stages of all it is not necessary to
have got very far with Asana, because all you can get out of the
early practices is really a foreshadowing of the difficulties of
doing it.
     18.  I began by taking a simple geometrical object in one
colour, such as a yellow square.  I will quote the official instruc-
tions in 'The Equinox'.
   'Dharana -- Control of thought.'
   '1.  Constrain the mind to concentrate itself upon a single simple
object imagined.  The five tatwas are useful for this purpose; they
are:  a black oval; a blue disk; a silver crescent; a yellow square;
a red triangle.
   '2.  Proceed to combinations of single objects; e.g., a black oval
within a yellow square, and so on.
   '3.  Proceed to simple moving objects, such as a pendulum swing-
ing; a wheel revolving, etc.  Avoid living objects.
   '4.  Proceed to combinations of moving objects, e.g., a piston
rising and falling while a pendulum is swinging.  The relation
between the two movements should be varied in different experiements. 
   '(Or even a system of flywheels, eccentrics and governor.)
   '5.  During these practices the mind must be absolutely confined
to the object determined on; no other thought must be allowed to
intrude upon the consciousness.  The moving systems must be regular
and harmonious.
   '6.  Note carefully the duration of the experiment, the number and
nature of the intruding thoughts; the tendency of the object itself
to depart from the course laid out for it, and any other phenomena
which may present themselves.  Avoid overstrain; this is very
   '7.  Proceed to imagine living objects; as a man, preferably some
man known to, and respected by, you.
   '8.  In the intervals of these experiments you might try to
imagine the objects of the other senses, and to concentrate upon
them.  For example, try to imagine the taste of chocolate, the smell
or roses, the feeling of velvet, the sound of a waterfall, or the
ticking of a watch.
   '9.  Endeavour finally to shut out all objects of any of the
senses, and prevent all thoughts arising in your mind.  When you feel
you have attained some success in these practices, apply for examina-
tion, and should you pass, more complex and difficult practices will
be prescribed for you.'
     19.  Now one of the most interesting and irritating features of
your early experiments is:  interfering thoughts.  There is, first of
all, the misbehaviour of the object which you are contemplating; it
changes its colour and size; moves its position; gets out of shape. 
And one of the essential difficulties in practice is that it takes a
great deal of skill and experience to become really alert to what is
happening.  You can go on day-dreaming for quite long periods before
realising that your thoughts have wandered at all.  This is why I
insist so strongly on the practices described above as producing
alertness and watchfulness, and you will obviously realise that it is
quite evident that one has to be in the pink of condition and in the
most favourable mental state in order to make any headway at all. 
But when you have had a little practice in detecting and counting the
breaks in your concentration, you will find that they themselves are
useful, because their character is symptomatic of your state of
     20.  Breaks are classed as follows: --
     Firstly, physical sensations; these should have been overcome by
     Secondly, breaks that seem to be indicated by events immediately
preceding the meditation:  their activity becomes tremendous.  Only
by this practice does one understand how much is really observed by
the senses without the mind becoming conscious of it.
     Thirdly, there is a class of break partaking of the nature of
reverie or 'day-dreaming.'  These are very insidious -- one may go on
for a long time without realising that one has wandered at all.
     Fourthly, we get a very high class of break, which is a sort of
abberation of the control itself.  You think, 'How well I am doing
it!' or perhaps that it would be rather a good idea if you were on a
desert island, or if you were in a sound-proof house, or if you were
sitting by a waterfall.  But these are only trifling variations from
the vigilance itself.
     A fifth class of break seems to have no discoverable source in
the mind.  such might even take the form of actual hallucination,
usually auditory.  Of course, such hallucinations are infrequent, and
are recognised for what they are.  Otherwise the student had better
see a doctor.  The usual kind consists of odd sentences, or fragments
of sentences, which are quite distinctly heard in a recognisable
human voice, not the student's own voice, or that of anyone he knows. 
A similar phenomenon is observed by wireless operators, who call such
messages 'atmospherics.'
     *There is a further kind of break, which is the desired result
     21.  I have already indicated how tedious these practices
become; how great the bewilderment; how constant the disappointment. 
Long before the occurrence of Dhyana, there are quite a number of
minor results which indicate the breaking up of intellectual limita-
tion.  You must not be disturbed if these results make you feel that
the very foundations of your mind are being knocked from under you. 
The real lesson is that, just as you learn in Asana, the normal body
is in itself nothing but a vehicle of pain, so is the normal itself
insane; by its own standards it *is* insane.  You have only got to
read a quite simple and elementary work like Professor Joad's 'Guide
to Philosophy' to find that any argument carried far enough leads to
a contradiction in terms.  There are dozens of ways of showing that
if you begin 'A is A,' you end 'A is not A.'  The mind reacts against
this conclusion; it anaesthetises itself against the self-inflicted
wound, and it regulates philosophy to the category of paradoxial
tricks.  But that is a cowardly and disgraceful attitude.  The Yogi
has got to face the fact that we are all raving lunatics; that sanity
exists -- if it exists at all -- in a mental state free from dame's
school rules of intellect.
     With an earnest personal appeal, therefore, to come up frankly
to the mourners' bench and gibber, I will take my leave of you for
this evening.

     Love is the law, love under will.

 6.  Note carefully the duration of the experiment, the number and
nature of the intruding thoughts; the tendency of the object itself
to depart from the course laid out for it, and any other phenomena
which may present themselves.  Avoid overstrain; this is very
   '7.  Proceed to imagine living objects; as a man, preferably some
man known to, and respected by, you.
   '8.  In the intervals of these experiments you might try to
imagine the objects of the other senses, and to concentrate upon
them.  For example, try to imagine the taste of